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Fig. 1.

Mitotic fission yeast centromeres are organized in cytologically separable domains. (A) Schematic diagrams of centromere structures. Centromere 1 is shown as an example but centromeres 2 and 3 have similar symmetric organization. Top: centromere 1 DNA consists two regions containing a region of centromeric outer repeats ( and ) flanking a single central core region containing the sequence. Bottom: a putative structure of centromere 1 in sister centromeres at metaphase (based on data in Fig. 1B,C,E and supplemental data at ). Kinetochores (Kin) are separated and facing opposite spindle poles whereas the regions are held together by sister-chromatid cohesion. The central core regions are the bases for Kin structures. (B) Deconvolved IF images of fixed metaphase cells showing two pairs of sister kinetochores. The DNA sequences were detected by FISH (green) and are flanked by the kinetochore protein (Ndc80) signal (red). (C) Frames from live imaging movies (see Movies 1 and 2 at ) showing the spindle pole body protein Cut12-CFP (red) along with Ndc80-GFP (green) in one cell (left) and Cut12-GFP (red) along with CFP-Cnp1 (green) in another cell (right). Bottom panel: the graphs show the pixel intensities along the spindle axis in the cells of Cut12 (red) and Cnp1 or Ndc80 as indicated (green). The length of the spindle axis is indicated by large black arrowed lines below each graph and the distance between two adjacent Ndc80 (0.41 μm) or Cnp1 (0.25 μm) signals on the spindle axis are indicated by small black arrowed lines. (D) Top: frames from the movie showing Ndc80-GFP (green) along with CFP-Cnp1 and Cut12-CFP (red) in one cell. The dotted squares represent the pixel position of the Ndc80 signals (see Movies 1 and 2 at ). Bottom: pixel shift control of the Hu1048 strain expressing the same protein in dual colors: Cut12-CFP (green) and Cut12-GFP (red). The perfect colocalization of the two colors of Cut12 (bottom) shows that the pixel differences between Cnp1 and Ndc80 (top) are significant. (A-C) Scale bar: 0.50 μm.

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Media were prepared according to standard methods ( Moreno et al., 1991 ). Strains used are listed in Golden Goose Black amp; White Old Skool Platform Sneakers 7iDNJqj
. Strains carrying genes fused to green and cyan fluorescent proteins (GFP and CFP) were constructed using the methods described previously ( Bahler et al., 1998 ) with the following modifications. Plasmids containing CFP were constructed by replacing the entire coding region of GFP with that of CFP using standard techniques. Briefly, CFP was amplified by PCR using the cameleon pYC2 as template ( MOA MASTER OF ARTS Striped flatform sneakers Xn427
) and subsequently ligated into pFA6 in which GFP had been released. Expression of N-terminally tagged genes was controlled by the thiamine repressed nmt1 promoter.

When we studied 165 lawyers at a large North American law firm, for example, we found that their success depended on their ability to network effectively both internally (to get themselves assigned to choice clients) and externally (to bring business into the firm). Those who regarded these activities as distasteful and avoided them had fewer billable hours than their peers.

Fortunately, our research shows that an aversion to networking can be overcome. We’ve identified four strategies to help people change their mindset.

Most people have a dominant motivational focus—what psychologists refer to as either a “promotion” or a “prevention” mindset. Those in the former category think primarily about the growth, advancement, and accomplishments that networking can bring them, while those in the latter see it as something they are obligated to take part in for professional reasons.

In laboratory experiments we conducted in the United States and Italy with college students and working adults, and in an additional sample of 174 lawyers at the firm we studied, we documented the effects of both types of thinking. Promotion-focused people networked because they wanted to and approached the activity with excitement, curiosity, and an open mind about all the possibilities that might unfold. Prevention-focused people saw networking as a necessary evil and felt inauthentic while engaged in it, so they did it less often and, as a result, underperformed in aspects of their jobs.

Master these getting-to-know-you skills.

Thankfully, as Stanford University’s Carol Dweck has documented in her research, it’s possible to shift your mindset from prevention to promotion, so that you see networking as an opportunity for discovery and learning rather than a chore.

Consider a work-related social function you feel obliged to attend. You can tell yourself, “I hate these kinds of events. I’m going to have to put on a show and schmooze and pretend to like it.” Or you can tell yourself, “Who knows—it could be interesting. Sometimes when you least expect it, you have a conversation that brings up new ideas and leads to new experiences and opportunities.”

If you are an introvert, you can’t simply will yourself to be extroverted, of course. But everyone can choose which motivational focus to bring to networking. Concentrate on the positives—how it’s going to help you boost the knowledge and skills that are needed in your job—and the activity will begin to seem much more worthwhile.

The next step in making networking more palatable is to think about how your interests and goals align with those of people you meet and how that can help you forge meaningful working relationships. Northwestern University’s Brian Uzzi calls this the shared activities principle. “Potent networks are not forged through casual interactions but through relatively high-stakes activities that connect you with diverse others,” he explains. (See “How to Build Your Network,” HBR, December 2005.) Numerous studies in social psychology have demonstrated that people establish the most collaborative and longest-lasting connections when they work together on tasks that require one another’s contributions. Indeed, Sole Society Womens Lilianne Mule 1XWlj
that one of us (Tiziana) conducted with INSEAD’s Miguel Sousa Lobo showed that this “task interdependence” can be one of the biggest sources of positive energy in professional relationships.

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